Is it possible to use Autopsy to recover files from Android internal memory?

I’m the IT guy at my company and I just deleted a 3GB “Msgstore db Crypt” file from the CEO’s smartphone.

So I have to recover as many files as possible as quickly as possible.

Your question is too vague (what’s the device make/model, android version, application, etc.), so I can only answer generally.

Autopsy cannot extract contents of Android storage devices. If you can extract a physical volume from an android device with another tool, Autopsy can read many file systems commonly in use and carve from unallocated space. However, modern Android devices use encryption and extracting decrypted volumes isn’t possible, though copying logical files can be.

Your question seems to contemplate recovering a deleted database. This is not likely possible if the Android device is modern and uses a modern Android version (generally 7+) with encryption (default on 8+).

There are caveats to almost all of what I’ve said, but like I stated in the beginning, this is a general response.